Historically, many documents and contracts have charted the way for history. One such document was the ‘Purna Swaraj’ resolution by the Indian National Congress party (“INC”) . It called for complete independence and not just a dominion status as proposed by the Irwin Declaration. A public declaration was made by the INC on 26th January 1930 to urge Indians to celebrate “Independence Day”.
The resolution highlighted the economic, social, and cultural injustices inflicted on the people of India and finally made clear intentions of launching the civil disobedience movement. This resolution was a 750—word document that technically did not have any legal/constitutional structure to it. But, it was a resolution that called for severing ties with the British and claimed ‘Purna Swaraj’ or ‘complete independence’. Purna Swaraj resolution was a critical component of the changing strategy of the independence movement in engaging with the British: the demand for freedom was now made in the language of justice and not charity.
As various courses of events led to India’s freedom, a constitution needed to be drafted that would serve as the ultimate guide for our future government. The importance of the Constitution in its design was heavily debated, resulting in its appraisal of supremacy over the land and its people. It embodies the social contract theory wherein the need for people to progress their moral and political obligations motivates them to come into an alliance and form a state. For sometime The Government of India Act, of 1935 continued to remain effective until the Constitution of India became effective on 26 January 1950. rafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly specifically chose the date 26th January to honor the ‘Purna Swaraj’ resolution, as they believed it to be an instrumental manifesto that charted our path to freedom.
The spirit of this national holiday is to pontificate on the words of the Constitutional preamble which states that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. These words drafted almost 93 years ago, till date reflect the basic structure of the governance and the functions carried out by the different state organs in India.
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